EndNote Web: a Web-based service designed to help students and researchers through the process of writing a research paper. Undergraduate students can organize their references for citing in papers. Professional researchers and graduate students can use EndNote Web as the perfect complement to EndNote and other desktop writing tools, as well as storing references between ISI Web of Knowledge search sessions.


Zotero: an easy-to-use yet powerful research tool that helps you gather, organize, and analyze sources (citations, full texts, web pages, images, and other objects), and lets you share the results of your research in a variety of ways. It has the ability to store author, title, and publication fields and to export that information as formatted references and the best parts of modern software and web applications (like iTunes and del.icio.us), such as the ability to interact, tag, and search in advanced ways. Zotero integrates tightly with online resources; it can sense when users are viewing a book, article, or other object on the web, and on many major research and library sites find and automatically save the full reference information for the item in the correct fields.


citeulike: free service for managing and discovering scholarly references. It can easily store references you find online, discover new articles and resources, automated article recommendations, share references with your peers, find out who’s reading what you’re reading, and store and search your PDFs.


EasyBib (Write Smart): The free version of EasyBib formats citations in the latest edition of the MLA format (currently the 7th edition). To use EasyBib’s APA formatting services, sign up for MyBib Pro by clicking here: https://www-secure.easybib.com/products/easybibpro.


KnightCite: an online citation generator service provided by the Hekman Library of Calvin College. This service simplifies the often tedious task of compiling an accurate bibliography in the appropriate style by formatting the given data on a source into a reliable citation, eliminating the need to memorize minute details of style for multiple kinds of sources. The service is provided free of charge by the college, and is available to members both within and outside of the Calvin community.


JabRef: an open source bibliography reference manager. The native file format used by JabRef is BibTeX, the standard LaTeX bibliography format. JabRef runs on the Java VM (version 1.5 or newer), and should work equally well on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X.


Son of Citation Machine: Professional researchers to properly credit the information that they use. Its primary goal is to make it so easy for student researchers to cite their information sources, that there is virtually no reason not to — because SOMEDAY THE INFORMATION THAT SOMEONE ELSE WANTS TO USE — WILL BE YOURS!


refbase: This web database lets you manage your academic references online, and share them with your colleagues. Using this free web service you can upload your references and see what others are reading, the database currently features 24047 records, organize and group your references, and assign keywords to them, so it’s easy to get back to a reference, generate a formatted list of citations for your academic paper or CV (as HTML, RTF, PDF, or LaTeX), export references to desktop reference managers (such as Endnote, or Reference Manager) or BibTeX, and import records from common bibliographic formats and online databases.

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Comparison Chart

See Wikipedia’s Comparison of Reference Management Software for extensive comparisons of many citation managers. For an at-a-glance, one-page comparison, see the Citation Managers Handout.

EndNote Desktop EndNote Basic Mendeley Zotero
Cost Requires individual purchase by user, research group or department. Educational discounts available through UW-Bookstore or DoIT Free to everyone (fewer styles)Free to UW-Madison students, staff and faculty (many more styles) – See comparison chart. Click box next to I Have Web of Knowledge. Free to everyone (costs for upgraded storage, costs for private groups – one private group of 3 members free) Free to everyone (costs for upgraded storage)
Operating System Macintosh, Windows Web-based (operating system-independent) Macintosh, Windows, Linux Macintosh, Windows, Linux
Share data among other citation management programs Yes Yes Yes Yes
Global edit Yes, can globally add/replace terms No No No
Duplicate detection Yes Yes Yes Yes
Automatic journal abbreviation lists 12 lists supplied, including National Library of Medicine, American Chemical Society, Modern Language Association. Can import others. None Version 1.10 and later automatically abbreviates journal titles according to citation style, and allows for editing of abbreviations. Version 4.0 and later can automatically abbreviate journal titles in Index Medicus (MEDLINE) format
Link to PDFs or other materials
  • Open URL compliant (Must configure EndNote to use the UW-Madison Libraries Find It links)
  • Max. 45 files/record. Thumbnail images supplied which point to materials in the data folder for each EndNote library
  • Max. 1 image in Figure field
  • OpenURL compliant (automatically uses the UW-Madison Libraries Find It links)
  • Can enter URLs directly
  • Can Link to PDF files on the web
  • Add attachments. Default attachment storage of 2GB/account
  • OpenURL compliant (must configure Mendeley to use the UW-Madison Libraries Find It links)
  • Add attachments
  • Web snapshots
  • OpenURL compliant (must configure Zotero to use the UW-Madison Libraries Find It links)
  • Add attachments
  • Web snapshots
Retrieve PDF citation data Queries DOI and PubMed (EnX5 update). Mixed success. No Queries PubMed database for matches. Mixed success. Queries CrossRef, WorldCat and/or Google Scholar. Mixed success.
Add notes to references Yes, in “notes” field Yes, in “notes” field Yes, via “notes” tab in desktop Yes, notes can stand alone or be attached to references
Annotate PDFs Yes (X5 and newer) No Yes No, but will sync PDFs annotated with 3rd party software
Full Text PDF search Yes (X4 and newer) No Yes Yes
Direct Search of Online Catalogs/Databases Yes: List Yes Automatic capture Automatic capture
Direct Export (from databases) Yes: List Yes, with specific databases Yes, via web importer Yes, via translators
Filters for importing from online databases Yes (List) Yes Imports wikis, websites, and databases via web importer.Web snapshot retains the presentation of a particular web page. Imports wikis, websites, and databases via translators.Web snapshot retains the presentation of a particular web page.
Creates formatted bibliographies, in-text citations, and footnotes in word processor Yes Yes (MS Word only) Yes Yes
Edit or create styles Yes No Yes Yes, via Citation Style Editor
Create a Subject Bibliography (Create a list of references grouped by subject or other data field) Yes. You may generate a bibliography grouped by any field (e.g. subject, author). No No No
Read-only capability Yes (Set library to read-only or locked status) Yes (Read-only share “group” with anyone who has an EndNote Web account) Yes (By “follow” option through web interface) Yes (Via member settings within groups)
Collaboration features
  • Free sharing (citations and attachments) of one Endnote Library with up to 14 other people
    • Includes unlimited storage space for PDF attachments
    • Version X7.2 required to share
  • Traveling Library within a word processor document
  • Save as compressed file with data subfolder
  • Share EndNote Web account with other EndNote Web users (cannot share file attachments)
  • Create public and private groups
  • Automatic synchronization of collections among multiple computers
  • One private group of 3 members free (costs for private groups)
  • Create public and private groups
  • Automatic synchronization of collections among multiple computers
Mobile Device Application iPad app, browser interface No iPad, iPhone, 3rd party Android apps, web interface 3rd party iOS and Android apps, web interface
Access citations remotely Yes (X6 and newer) Yes Yes Yes
Store PDFs in personal citation database Yes Yes Yes Yes
Screen capture web page content (blogs, streaming video, etc.) No No Yes Yes
Storage/Maximum number of records Versions 8 – X3: 330,000.
X4 and later: 999,999
10,000 Unlimited on desktop (restricted by local storage capacity); 2 GB free web space Unlimited on desktop (restricted by local storage capacity); 300 MB free web storage
Maximum number of reference types (e.g. journal, book)
  • Pre-defined (customizable): 50
  • User-defined: 3
  • Pre-defined (customizable): 50
  • User-defined: 3
  • Pre-defined: 20
  • Pre-defined: 35
Search and Replace Yes No No No
Auto-complete data entry Yes, for author(s), keyword(s), and journal title No Yes, for journal title, tags, keywords Yes, for author(s), journal title, tags
Spell Check Yes No No No
Sort capabilites Any field Author, title or year Any information categories Any information categories
Field Search Yes, by any field Yes, by author Yes, by author, title, publication names, year & notes Yes, by any field
Advanced Search Yes. Includes truncation and date range searching No No Yes. All fields
Edit or create filters Yes Yes Yes Yes
Create a bibliography as a file within citation manager
  • HTML
  • Rich Text Format (RTF)
  • XML
  • Plain Text
  • HTML
  • Rich Text Format (RTF)
  • Plain Text
  • Word for Windows 2000 or later
  • Word for Mac 98 or later
  • HTML
  • Rich Text Format (RTF)
  • Copy plain text to clipboard
Export Export records to:

  • Tab Delimited
  • BibTeX
  • XML
Export records to:

  • Tab Delimited
  • BibTeX
  • EndNote (XML)
  • RIS
  • Refer export
Export records to:

  • BibTeX
  • EndNote (XML)
  • RIS
Export records to:

  • BibTeX
  • RIS
  • Refer/BiblX
  • BIbliontology
  • MODS
  • and many more
RSS Feeds No No Yes Yes
AbHyg Abstracts on Hygiene and Communicable Diseases
AcadOF Academic OneFile
AcaI Academic Index [Ceased]
AEA Agricultural Engineering Abstracts
AED Agricultural Economics Database
AgBiotechNet Online database of agriculture biotechnology indexed abstracts
AgBiotechNI Latest information on agricultural biotechnology, covering
genetic engineering, molecular genetics and in vitro culture of
plants and animals.
Agr Agricola C R I S
AgrForAb Agroforestry Abstracts (Online Edition)
AGRIS The AGRIS International database serves as a comprehensive
inventory of worldwide agricultural literature
AltPI Alternative Press Index
AnBrAb Animal Breeding Abstracts
AnPD Animal Production Database
AnSD Animal Science Database part of CABI
APEL Asian – Pacific Economic Literature
ASCI Asian Science Citation Index
BAS Bibliography of Asian Studies (Online Edition)
BFAb Biofuels Abstracts
BibAg Bibliography of Agriculture [Ceased]
BioCN&I Biocontrol News and Information
BiolAb Biological Abstracts
Biostat Biostatistica
BPA Botanical Pesticides Abstracts
CabiAb The databse covering agriculture and environment by center for
Agricultural Bioscience Internationl
CAASC Computers & Applied Sciences Complete covers the research and
development spectrum of the computing and applied sciences
disciplines (part of EBSCO)
CAES Current Advances in Ecological Sciences
ChemAb Chemical Abstracts
ChemTitl Chemical Titles [Ceased]
CIS Current Index to Statistics
CISAb Computer and Information Systems Abstracts (part of ProQuest)
CPA Crop Physiology Abstracts
CSA Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
CSCD Chinese Science Citation Database
CSD Crop Science Database
CurCont Current Contents
DBA Biotechnology Abstracts
DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journal
DSA Dairy Science Abstracts
EBSCO EBSCOhost online resources: a suite of more than 300 full-text
and secondary research databases covering all subject areas,
levels of research, and user communities – from schools, public
libraries and universities, to hospitals, corporations and
government agencies.
EconLit Bibliographic database of both the Journal of Economic
Literature and the Index of Economic Articles as well as selected
working papers series listed on RePEc (Research Papers in
EIP Ekistic Index of Periodicals
EMBiology Bibliographic database of Life Science from Elsevier
EMCare Elsevier’s database on all nursing specialities and healthcare
EMRmedex Citation, abstract, and full text of articles published in Eastern
Mediterranean Region biomedical journals.
EnvIMP Environmental Impact
ExcerpMed Excerpta Medica. Abstract Journals (EMBASE)
ERIC Education Resources Information Center
ESD Environmental Science Database
ExtraMED ExtraMED [Incorporated into BioMed Central]
FAPC Feminist Academic Press Column
FCA Field Crop Abstracts
ForAb Forestry Abstracts
FPA Forest Products Abstracts
FSD Forest Science Database
FSTA Food Sciences Bibliographic database
Gale Leading Publisher of Archival Research Material (Primary Source
GDPBM Gale Directory of Publications and Broadcast Media
GENAMICS Largest completely categorized database of scholarly journal
information available on the internet
GEOBASE The Bibliographic database for the Earth, Geographical and
Ecological Sciences Imprint
GeoRef Bibliography and Index of Geology
Ghealth Global Health provides international coverage of all aspects of
public health
HelmAb Helminthological Abstracts
HerbAb Grasslands and Forage Abstracts
HSD Horticultural Science Database
HSA Horticultural Science Abstracts
HRIS T R I S Electronic Bibliographic Data Base (Transportation
Research Information Services)
I&DA Irrigation and Drainage Abstracts
IAOR International Abstracts in Operations Research
InfoTrac Full text databases of content from academic journals published
by Gale
IBIDS International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements
IBR Internationale Bibliographie der Rezensionen Wissenschaftlicher
IBSS International Bibliography of the Social Sciences
IBZ I B Z – Internationale Bibliographie der Geistes- und
Sozialwissenschaftlichen Zeitschriftenliteratur
ICJ Index Copernicus Journals
ILD International Labour Documentation
IMEMR Index Medicus for East Mediterranean Region
IndIslam Index Islamicus
IndMed Index Medicus
IndVet Index Veterinarius
INIS AtomInd I N I S Atomindex (Online Edition) (International Nuclear
Inspec Inspenc
IPSA International Political Science Abstracts
ISA Indian Science Abstracts
ISI ISI Web of Knowledge Citation and journal database
JEL Journal of Economic Literature
L&LBA Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts
LibLit Library Literature & Information Science
LingAb Linguistics Abstracts
LISA L I S A: Library & Information Science Abstracts
LISTA Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts by EBSCO
MaizeAb Maize Abstracts
MAPA Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts
MathR Mathematical Reviews
MEDLINE Bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical
MEDLIP Index of Medical Articles published in Pakistan
NAFSD Nutrition and Food Sciences Database online part of cabi
NemAb Nematological Abstracts
NICS Nutrition Information in Crisis Situations
NurAb Nursing Abstracts [Ceased]
NutrAb Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews
OceAb Oceanic Abstracts
OFD Online database for Organic Farming and food part of CABI
OAJI Open Academic Journals Index
OrnHort Ornamental Horticulture
OrnithAb Essential Ornithological Abstracts [Ceased]
ORD Organic Research Database (part of Cabi)
PakAgriD Pakistan Agriculture Database
PakMediNet Pakistani online Medical Database containing research articles
published in Pakistani Medical Journals.
PARASITECD Parasitology Database covers parasitology in its broadest sense,
encompassing helminthology, protozoology, medical and
veterinary entomology and mycology.
PBA Plant Breeding Abstracts
PerIslam Periodica Islamica
PGegResA Plant Genetic Resources Abstracts
PGBD Plant Genetics and Breeding Database
PGrRegA Plant Growth Regulator Abstracts
PHN&I Postharvest News and Information
PolyD Polymer Database
PopulInd Population Index [Ceased]
PotatoAb Potato Abstracts
PoultAb Poultry Abstracts
PPD Plant Protection Database part of CABI
ProQuest Common platform for multiple databases including CSA
ProtozoAb Protozoological Abstracts
PSA Pakistan Science Abstracts
PsycholAb Psychological Abstracts
PsycInfo PsycINFO
PubMed PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations for biomedical
literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books.
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed
Central and publisher web sites.
RA&MP Review of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants
RAPRA R A P R A Abstracts (Rubber and Plastics Research Association of
Great Britain)
RDA Rural Development Abstracts
RevApplEntom Review of Agricultural Entomology & Review of Medical and
Veterinary Entomology
RGPR Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature
RiceAb Rice Abstracts
RM&VM Review of Medical and Veterinary Mycology
RPP Review of Plant Pathology
RRTA “Leisure, Recreation and Tourism Abstracts”
S&F Soils and Fertilizers
SCI Science Citation Index
SCIRUS The most comprehensive science-specific search engine on the
SCOPUS database of abstracts and citations for scholarly journal articles
SEA Sociology of Education Abstracts
SeedAb Seed Abstracts
SIA Sugar Industry Abstracts
SJA Scientific Journal Ranking or SCImago Journal Rank
SocINDEX SocINDEXTM is the world’s most comprehensive and highest
quality sociology research database by EBSCO
SociolAb Sociological Abstracts
SoyAb Soyabean Abstracts
SSA Social Services Abstracts
SSD Soil Science database part of CABI
Summon Online database of books and videos to e-resources such as
articles by Serial Solutions
SWA Studies on Women and Gender Abstracts
TDB Tropical Diseases Bulletin
TOSA Tropical Oil Seeds [Ceased]
ToxAb Toxicology Abstracts
TRD Pro Quest CSA’s Technology Research Database
TriticAb “Wheat, Barley and Triticale Abstracts”
VetBull Veterinary Bulletin
VetMedRes VetMed Resources part of CABI
VetSD Veterinary Science Database part of CABI
VINITI Bibliographic Database RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences)
VirolAbstr C S A Virology and AIDS Abstracts (Cambridge Scientific
WAD World Agriculture Database
WAE&RSA World Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology Abstracts
WeedAb Weed Abstracts
WSA Women Studies Abstracts
ZentMath Zentralblatt MATH
ZooRec Zoological Record